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Prostate Cancer and Vitamin E

What Do We Know About Prostate Cancer and Vitamin E?

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Updated February 23, 2010

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

The potential benefits of vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention have generated a great deal of interest for a number of years.

At first, vitamin E was thought to be a potentially beneficial nutrient in terms of lowering the risk of prostate cancer or of slowing its growth. However, today we know that Vitamin E probably won't help.

Early Studies

Not that long ago, vitamin E was thought to provide some protection against the development of prostate cancer or to work to slow its progression. Several observational studies had been performed seemingly showing that higher intake of vitamin E was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer and several other studies had shown that vitamin E might work to inhibit many of the functions of cancerous prostate cells.

Many major news organizations picked up on these stories and soon much of the world thought of vitamin E as a potentially very beneficial supplement for prostate cancer prevention.

Despite several seemingly convincing studies showing the benefit of vitamin E for prostate cancer risk reduction, many physicians were unsure as to the true benefits of this mineral. Because the development and progression of prostate cancer is not fully understood and thought to be quite complex, many physicians were skeptical as to the true potential benefits or harms of a single mineral in this complicated disease evolution.

Many prominent researchers pushed for a large, well-organized study of the true benefits of vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention.

The SELECT Trial

The SELECT (the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial) trial was the first large, well-organized, comprehensively controlled study that sought to evaluate the benefits of both selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention. The study was monitored and organized by several well-respected researchers and research groups.

The SELECT trial enrolled more than 35,000 men who were randomly assigned to one of four groups over the course of several years. One group took one selenium and one vitamin E tablet daily. One group took one selenium and one placebo tablet daily. One group took one vitamin E and one placebo tablet daily. One group took two placebo tablets daily.

The SELECT trial overall showed no benefit in terms of prostate cancer risk reduction from taking selenium or vitamin E supplements. In addition, the trial showed a slight increase in the rate of diabetes among the men who were taking selenium supplements and a slight increase in the rate of prostate cancer in the men taking vitamin E supplements.

Neither of these slight increases in medical conditions were found to be statistically significant (meaning these small increases could be due to chance), however, they were still troubling enough when coupled with the lack of benefit of the supplements for the trial to be stopped early and the participants to be told to cease taking their supplements.

Today

In large part due to the results of the SELECT trial, men today are generally no longer encouraged to take selenium and vitamin E supplements as a means to lower their prostate cancer risk.

Source:

Lippman SM, et al. Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E on Risk of Prostate Cancer and Other Cancers: The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA. 2009;301(1):39-51

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